Logical Fallacy Groups

I. Irrelevant Appeals–make specific appeals to factors that are usually irrelevant in good reasoning (R)

Appeal to Emotion (appeal to force or threat, appeal to personal circumstance, appeal to pity, appeal to tradition, playing to the gallery)

Appeals to False Authority, or Irrelevant or Questionable Authority

Appeal to Common Opinion (Bandwagon)


Sentimental Appeals

II. Fallacies of Irrelevance–employ premises that are logically irrelevant to their conclusions (R)
Ad hominem

Non Sequitur, Does Not Follow, or Missing the Point (of the evidence)

Poisoning the well

Tu Quoque

III. Begging-the-Question Fallacies–uses premises or assumptions that are not acceptable to the argument (A)

Begging the Question

Loaded Question

IV. Fallacies of Linguistic Confusion—misuse of, or confusion in, the meaning of the words, phrases, or sentences used in arguments (A)

Equivocation

V. Unwarranted Assumption Fallacies—employ high questionable, although sometimes popular, assumption that are typically unstated or implied (A)

Either-Or

Faulty Analogy

VI. Fallacies of Missing Evidence—use too little evidence, biased evidence, no evidence at all, or only the appearance of evidence (G)

Dogmatism, or Neglect of Relevant Evidence

Hasty Generalization

VII. Causal Fallacies—inferring causal explanations from premises do not provide adequate support for the explanations that result (G)

Faulty Casuality, Confusion of Cause and Effect, or Post Hoc fallacy

Link to the Simpsons’ episode, mentioned in class

Scare Tactics, or Causal Oversimplification

Slippery Slope

VIII. Fallacies of Diversion—use a pattern of reasoning that includes at least one irrelevant premise as ground for denying a position under examination (R)

Red Herring

Straw Man